Las Navas de Tolosa was a dramatical historic turning point as decisive as the battle of Gaugamela in 1st October 331 BCE, where Alexandre the Great had met and defeated the Persian vast army of Darius III. The confrontation between monolithic submissive rule against freedom has been a constant between Orient and Occident throughout all times. The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa on 16 July 1212 was a crucial key point in the Reconquista and the medieval history of Spain and Europe. An invading even fiercer Muslim army crossed from Africa through Gibraltar to conquer the northern part of Spain, which had not been occupied yet. Such was the danger that four kings in the Iberian Penninsula joined forces to match the new threat. King Alfonso VIII of Castile, Sancho VII of Navarre, Peter II of Aragon and Afonso II of Portugal. It was an even brutal encounter where Santiago, Calatrava, Hospital and Temple orders joined nobles with their armed retinue and some forces that came from Europe to help. The Caliph al-Nasir (Miramamolín in the Spanish chronicles) led the Almohad army. Most of the men in the Almohad army came from the African side of the empire”.
The battle of Las Navas de Tolosa stopped Islamic troops from spreading further into Spain and topped their ambitions to conquer not only Spain but the whole of Europe riding from the Pyrenees up into France to the rest of Europe. Again, two radically different ways of life were at stake: perpetual serfdom vs. freedom. Had those warrior Christians failed in their quest the whole of Europe would presumably be nowadays under the role of the Crescent Moon; even the new continent of America.
The fall of Constantinople in 1453 would have never happened if the leaders in Europe had been wiser, less botched and greedy with their petty inner struggles. With Constantinople in their power, the Ottomans had now two free access unlocked to invade Europe: one through the Mediterranean and the other along the Balkans to Vienna and then, the rest of Europe.
On 7 October 1571, the naval battle of Lepanto cleaned the Mediterranean sea from Ottoman corsairs, which so much terror and suffering had caused throughout Europe by constant slaughtering, plundering and preying mercilessly in the chase of booty and Christian slaves. But the objective underlying was much more aggressive regarding warfare. By disrupting maritime communications, they sealed any possibility of commerce in the Mediterranean coasts and at sea. Severe famine and widespread poverty meant a high death rate to the terrorised Europeans with a Mediterranean trade so brutally disrupted. The retaliation to so much terror came from the Pope Pius V and the Spanish King Felipe II, who sent his brother Juan de Austria, commanding a coalition of European Catholic maritime states. Mostly financed by the Spanish Empire. The battle of Lepanto decisively defeated the fleet of the Ottoman Empire for good and meant a gasp of fresh air for Christianity in Europe. The way of Islam conquering Europe; this time from the Mediterranean Sea, had been locked again. Only the Balkans remained as an open gate for the Ottomans entering Europe. The only opportunity left for the Islamic troops conquering Europe remained now from Istambul through the Carpathians to Viena.
The New Golden Apple
For the Ottomans, the new Golden Apple was Viena, the gate by which Islam would conquer Europe up to Iceland. By 1638, thirty years of war in Europe had weakened Europe and